Cryogenic Engineering and Superconductivity
In the high energy physics experiments, various cryogenic devices play as core function. For example, a particle detector with high-precision measurement of the energy contains liquid argon and xenon. Liquid hydrogen is necessary for an experimental target in nuclear research. High and uniform magnetic field induced by a superconducting magnet realizes high resolution identifying particle momentum. We, cryogenic group member, develop, built and operate the cryogenic system in order to contribute to particle or nuclear detectors of higher performance, by our engineering skills in the low-temperature-superconducting technology.
A 4 m large diameter superconducting solenoid, which induces a magnetic field of 1.5 T, has worked in the Belle detector to identify particle momentum. 28 superconducting magnets were set as long as 150 m in a J-PARC neutrino beam line to transport protons from an accelerator ring to a neutrino production target. There are a superconducting spectrometer and a liquid hydrogen target system in J-PARC Hadron Hall to support several nuclear experiments.
A liquid xenon calorimeter for MEG experiment at PSI and a thin superconducting solenoid in LHC/ATLAS detector have been running in Switzerland. In particle astrophysics, thin superconducting solenoids with persistent current have contributed to BESS and BESS-Polar cosmic ray observations. Recently a superconducting solenoid beam line for a muon experiment has been developed and a large superconducting cryogenics system for ILC has been considered. Liquid argon cooling and purification system has been developed for a neutrino detector.
As introduced above, our cryogenic group members contribute to many high energy experiments by using our cryogenic engineering capability.