Exploring the environment deep inside the Earth
The inside of the Earth is an extreme environment, with temperatures of a few thousand degrees and pressures of a few tens of thousands of atmospheres. Simulating such environments in experimental devices can reveal the mechanisms of changes in minerals inside the earth, including those that cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
Analysis of extraterrestrial samples
The Universe contains substantial information on the history of the Earth and the Solar System. Precious samples, available in only small quantities, such as meteors from outer space and samples collected by spacecraft, are effectively investigated with high-brilliant beams and highly sensitive detectors.